Types of foundations and their uses could make construction remarkably cost-effective as it depending on the load-bearing capacity of soil not only depends on the load-bearing capacity but also on the characteristics of its settlement. Whether the structure is a single storey or a skyscraper.
In this article, we’ll discuss various types of foundations and their uses as well as their suitability according to the soil which helps in the economic construction of buildings and long-life workability of structure.
Basically, a building is categorized into two parts Superstructure (Structure which is above the ground) and Substructure (Structure which is below the ground).
We’ll talk about substructures in this article.
Generally, Substructures denote foundation. Therefore, foundations are classified into two main parts:-
1- Shallow Foundations.
2- Deep Foundations.
There are various civil engineering software products that are used in designing foundations.
Shallow Foundations are used in the area where soils have enough capacity to bear building loads within the depth of (1.5 m – 2 m). Shallow foundation width is more than its depth.
Types of Shallow Foundations
Various types of Shallow foundations are as follows:-
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Strip Footings are the foundation that is commonly used in load-bearing wall structures or used when columns are closely packed to prevent overlapping of the foundation of each column these footings are used.
These are also known as wall footings and continuous footings. It is used where the load of the building is lesser than the load-bearing capacity of the soil.
Individual footings are used when the settlement of load in buildings is fixed. It is unsuitable for the structures where the settlements are varying with time and the load of the buildings spreads in a wider area.
These are the most economical foundations as they are configured as per the load imposed by the building.
Combined footings are used when two isolated footings are closed enough to avoid their overlapping. It is used when the bearing capacity of soil is less.
These are subjected to transverse bending and the footing is designed in a way that the column load coincides with the centroid of footing area has to maintain equal pressure below footings.
Raft foundations are used when the variation in the load on columns is more its is a reinforced slab-like structure, but depth is more than slab is provided as a foundation under the entire structure.
It is provided in the area where the load-bearing capacity of soil is less. It evenly distributes the load of the entire structure on the soil
Deep Foundations are the foundations that are used when the load-bearing capacity of soil is less than the structure load.
It is used to carry the load of the structure when the soil is compressible to find hard strata beneath the foundation to keep the building durable and long-lasting.
Types of Deep Foundations
1. Pile Foundations
Pile Foundations are the foundations whose depth is generally 3 times if its width its is used in the area where the soil is weak in compression, so to provide stable base to the building we use pile foundation.
These are the foundations that are generally used in the construction in water bodies like; river seas oceans, etc.
These are also known as pier foundations, they are hollow structures that are filled with concrete to provide piers in a foundation of the structure and then sunk to a certain depth which is required for the foundation as per structural drawings.
3. Shaft Foundations
Shaft foundations are the foundations that are used as same as caisson foundations. The shaft is drilled on the earth’s surface and has reinforcement around the shaft then it casts by the concrete.
It is mainly used when large lateral and axial loads are subjected.
So, these are the types of foundations and their uses in civil engineering and make civil structures remarkably strong.
In the upcoming articles we will discuss each and every foundation in detail if you have any questions regarding this article you can leave a comment below.