Shoring in Construction is the acclaimed technique used in civil engineering that supports the structure or undergoing construction and helps the engineers to alterate or rehabilitates the old structure.
They also provide temporary support to prevent collapsing, damaging the structure or trenches, and to provide initial strength to the structure and its Foundation.
Shoring and scaffolding is a technique used at various times in civil engineering, mostly at the beginning of construction (needed in excavation to prevent collapsing of soil around the foundation).
What is Shoring?
It is basically used to prevent the overturning of soil due to uneven settlement of soil underneath the foundation, it is used to avoid failure and to strengthen building in the primal stage of construction.
There are various similar techniques like underpinning, Scaffolding, etc. Which is used to strengthen and support the structure.
In this article, we’ll also discuss one case study of rehabilitation of structure which we have complete recently as a structure consultant.
Uses of Shoring in Construction
Shoring is basically used at a site where excavation depth is a minimum of 1.2 m, and its usability depends on the type of soil.
As the shoring is completely different from retaining walls. it no designing buildings, structure engineers keep the suitability of shoring as per structural requirements.
It is also used as a support at the time of rehabilitation of structures or to remove columns and beams from the structure and work as a lifesaver for workers and engineers as they were working in trenches and in excavated lands.
Shoring and shielding both are different techniques as shoring work as a support, preventive measure and shielding always use for the safety of workers.
It is also used in demolition work as it supports neighboring buildings to prevent damage and collapse.
Shoring Techniques in Building Construction
There are the various techniques for shoring which is used as per site suitability These are as follows:-
1- Hydraulic Shoring
Hydraulic Shoring is the safest and quickest shoring mostly used in supporting sidewalls of trenches.
This shoring technique is used in trenches up to a depth of 18′ in narrow trenches. Hydraulic pistons are most likely used in this technique to exert counter force on the trench walls and support them.
It is a combination of plywood, steel plate to make construction safe.
2- Soil Nailing
Soil Nailing is a technique that is widely used in the hilly area to provide stability to the rocks and slopes which get disturbed during construction or widening of the road.
This shoring technique prevents landslides and makes the road safer and workable throughout the year. Holes are drilled on the slopes and inserted reinforcement inclined downwards and grout them.
3- Raking Shore
Raking Shore is the technique in which timbres are used. This shoring technique is used to support the walls and structures and the most effective supports is given between an angle of 45 to 75 degrees.
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4- Beam and Plate
Beam and Plate technique is the time taking technique than Hydraulic shoring.
In this shoring technique steel, I beam besetting into the ground and steel plates are lurking between them. Soldier boarding is a similar method, but wooden planks are used in it.
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5- Continuous Flight Auger Piling
Continuous Flight Auger Piling or Auger Cast Piles are the piles used to support soil when excavation is going on in nearby areas.
It is done by doing Continuous Flight Augering drill in the ground then fill the shaft with high pressure concrete and then auger takes out or extracted.
Types of Shoring in Construction
There are various types of shoring that are classified and categorizes according to their uses and suitability.
Flying Shoring or Horizontal Shoring
Flying Shoring work is the same as other shoring, but they provide free work area beneath its supports.
They Mostly used between two parallel surfaces like walls as it is a temporary support for the partition walls between the two buildings
There are certain limitations for flying shoring there is usually one horizontal support on the shoring within 9 m as the large spans reacquire more horizontal support members.
There are various components of flying Shoring are:-
- Wall Plates.
These are consist of Clits, wall plates, needles, Inclined struts, and horizontal Shores.
Horizontal Shore is the horizontal member of the flying shore as it covers the space between the two structures in between it placed.
Inclined Struts work as a truss in the flying shore without inclined struts it could not support the structure. Needles clits are the structural components used in flying shoring.
These are of two types:-
1- Single Flying Shore.
2- Double Flying Shore.
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Dead Shoring or Vertical Shoring
Dead Shoring as the name signifies it supports the dead load of the buildings. we use this type of shoring in construction when we have to rebuild the load-bearing wall of the structure or to make an opening on the load-bearing wall.
Things to remember while doing site inspection:-
- Soil bearing capacity must be checked.
- The number of Shores must be determined according to the structure load.
- Shore must be positioned properly.
- Ceilings and floors must be punctured for shore legs.
As the work is complete we should leave shore a minimum of seven days in its position to make sure strengthening of the new structure.
We use this type of shoring in construction to laterally support the structure with the help of inclined members called rakers.
Raking Shoring has various components these are as follows:-
Points should be remembered while using raking shoring:-
1:- Rakers should be inclined between 45 degrees to 75 degrees.
2:-Rakers should be installed correctly at proper intervals.
3:-installation of shoring should be proper on the ground.
4:-For sky scrappers the length of the rakers should be reduced by rider rakers.
5:- 3 m to 4.5 m spacing must be there in long length bars.
This was all about the use of shoring in construction, its techniques, and uses.
I hope you get it and if you have any queries regarding this article you can leave a comment below.