Rebar Sizes, Grades, And Types

Rebar size

Rebar (reinforcing bar) is used to give strength to the concrete, which helps it to develop strength at the time of the tension.

These reinforcing bars are usually made up of steel, as steel has flexibility, malleability as well as ductility.

Though the concrete has compressive strength to use concrete in tension members, the reinforcing bars are used.

Reinforcing bars are of different Types, Sizes, Grades which basically depend on the type of structures in which rebars are being used.

Different Specifications For Deformed And Plain Bars.

There are certain specifications by different countries for deformed and plain steel bars

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United States Specification for Deformed and Plain Steel Bars

The usefulness of bars depends on their size grade and type. But there are some common use of different size bars:-

  • #3 :-As these are economical bars which is used in the rigid pavements, and it plays significance role by giving strength to the roads as well as walls of swimming pool and tanks.
  • #4 :- They are mostly used in the construction of highways to give supplementary strength.
  • #5 :-These bars are commonly used in small bridges and roads.
  • #6 :- These bars are relatively thicker than previous one, so it is used in retaining walls and foundations.
  • #7 :- These bars size are commonly used to support bridges structures.
  • #8 :- These sizes of bars are used in commercial construction as well as in hydraulic structures.
  • #9 :- These bars are use in multistory buildings as they give more strength to the structures like retaining walls etc.
  • #10 :- Use in the projects where heavy reinforcements are required, basically used in large projects.
  • #11 :- These bars are very strong and thick in diameter, that’s why these are mostly use in large and load bearing structures.
  • #14 :- These are the bars mostly used in the bridges, high-rise buildings, dams as these are the very thick bars.
  • #18 :- These are the thickest and heaviest bars are used in industrial grade buildings.

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Metric Bar SizeMass per unit length (kg/m)Nominal Diameter (mm)Cross-Sectional Area (mm2)
#60.222628.3
#80.395850.3
#100.6171078.5
#120.88812113
#141.2114154
#161.57916201
#202.46720314
#253.85525491
#284.8328616
#326.31632804
#409.868401257
#5015.413501963
European Specification for Deformed and Plain Steel Bars

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Metric Bar SizeMass per unit length (kg/m)Nominal Diameter (mm)Cross-Sectional Area (mm2)
10M0.78511.3100
15M1.57016.0200
20M2.35519.5300
25M3.92525.2500
30M5.49529.9700
35M7.85035.71000
45M11.77543.71500
55M19.62556.42500
Canadian Specification for Deformed and Plain Steel Bars

These specifications were followed by the structural engineers while designing the building for safe and sound structures. So, that the structure has a long life.

These steel specifications are published by various government agencies after much research and study.

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Grades of Rebars

Grades of rebars are basically depended on the tensile and yield strength of the steel bar. As the yield strength and tensile strength play a major role while designing the building.

The grades are decided and published by the government agencies after much research and development. Which are basically depends on the tensile strength and yield strength of the steel.

The yield strength is the minimum amount of stress steel can bear before deformation, and the tensile strength is the maximum stress steel can bear before permanent deformation.

In the case of the United States, these grades are set by American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

According to which all steel is classified into grades according to their yield strength. These grades are- 40, 60, 75, 80, and 100.

40-grade of steel has a minimum yield strength of 40 KSI or 40,000 PSI, whereas the 80-grade bar has a minimum yield strength of 80 KSI or 80,000 PSI.

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Types of Rebars

Types of rebars count on the project and the environmental exposure of the site. It is also important to select the type of rebar carefully.

So that the structure can be supported and strengthen by the rebar properly for the long structural life.

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Galvanized Rebars

Galvanized steel bar is used in place of the epoxy-coated bar. It is more resistant to wear and tear happen at the time of traveling and installation.

Galvanized Steel Bars are made by dipping the steel bars into the zinc solution and have a water coating of zinc solution on it.

Which results in 40 times better protection against corrosion. These galvanized as quite expensive than the conventional steel bars.

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Epoxy-Coated Rebars

Epoxy-coated bars are used where the bars are more exposed to humidity and moisture, as humidity and moisture play a vital role in the corrosion.

However, this epoxy coating is delicate in that it gets scratched at the time of traveling and installation. They are not durable as galvanized ones.

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Carbon Steel Rebar

It is not suitable for projects in high moisture and high humidity. It is commonly used in residential as well as commercial projects.

These are economical to use by they might be riskier due to carbon content in them as they make them more brittle.

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Welded Wire Fabric (WWF) Rebar

These are used to give overall tensile strength to the structures. As they are made up of low carbon steel, which makes them suitable to use in large projects.

These are used in a grid pattern to provide tensile strength in reinforced concrete slabs.

Expanded Metal Rebar

These are used to support extremely thick plasters on concrete. They are used as a mesh cut from a thick steel sheet. It is suitable for sidewalks or areas which are not prone to heavy loads.

These are basically cut from the thick steel sheet, they are very useful for plaster works.

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Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Rebar

As the name signifies, glass fiber used in these rebars doesn’t get corrode like conventional rebars and has more tensile strength than any other of its competitors.

These are 75% lighter and have more strength than other rebars. These are the best suitable for the structures which are exposed to the water.

Due to its lightweight, it is economical in transportation as well as easier to use on-site.

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Stainless-Steel Rebar

Stainless-Steel Rebars are perfectly suitable for load-bearing structures like bridges, piers, roads, etc. They are costlier than any other rebars.

As they also help to prevent corrosion and support structures than any other conventional rebars.

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Conclusion

This is all about the basics of reinforcing bars, as it is very important for the structures to provide strength and support.

It is also very important to choose the proper size, grades, and types of rebars as per the structures.

This is all about rebars if you have any queries about this article, you can leave a comment below.

By Shivansh Sharma

Shivansh Sharma is a Civil Engineer who is a Structural Engineering enthusiast, Blogger, and learner. Pursuing M. Tech (Structural Engineering). His project portfolios include 3 Residential projects and 1 commercial project. His knowledge of Rehabilitation of structures, Concrete, Steels and construction techniques allows him to help clients to meet their needs. Being a nature lover If he isn't working you will probably find him in the garden with his plants.

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